Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum)
containing certain seaweed herbal medicines are being investigated for
their ability to reduce plaque and calculus in the body. The present investigation relates to an oral
preparation for reduction of mammalian plaque
Dental calculus is an inconvenience that affects mammals, such as humans, cats and dogs. Dental calculus is considered by professionals to be calcified bacterial deposits. It is considered to appear where removal of the deposits has failed. It is very strongly attached to the dental surface and it is impossible for an ordinary person to remove it by himself. The only method hitherto know for removing dental calculus is that the dentist or the dental hygienist mechanically brakes it loose with an instrument or vibrates it loose with a supersonic apparatus. Dental calculus gives no pain but the removal thereof often does. It makes oral hygiene more difficult and should be removed.
Plaque is a necessity for
formation of dental calculus and for development of caries. However, all
plaques do not develop calculus, probably due to some protective mechanism in
Everyone does not get dental calculus. Despite a miserable oral hygiene some persons may live their whole life without getting any. The reason for this is unknown but it can be assumed that the chemical composition of the saliva plays an important role.
Therefore, it should be possible to combat the formation of dental calculus with chemical means. Many attempts have been made to administer chemical preparations that were expected to locally influence the process. Hitherto none has been successful.
The present research provides a means to reduce, or even eliminate, not only bacterial plaque and dental caries but also arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, pleural plaque, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus.
The investigation is on a
preparation of Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) and is based on
empirical studies on dog and human which have established that dental calculus
is released after a few weeks consumption of coated tablets containing meal of Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum).
They were swallowed without letting them first exert any local effect in the
mouth. Therefore it can be concluded that the effect on the dental calculus
Both in the initial empirical
studies and in the experiments below the seaweed used is an Ascophylium
sp., namely A. nodosum The analyzed composition of
Thus, one aspect of the investigation
is directed to the use of
In this specification and
claims, it is intended that the extract
In a preferred embodiment of the invention the mammal is selected from a human, a cat and a dog.
In another embodiment the
oral preparation is selected from a powder, suspension, tablet, coated tablet
and capsule. Since the taste of the seaweed is not considered to be attractive,
the taste is preferably masked by providing the seaweed in a coated tablet or
capsule, or by adding a spice or aroma to the powder, suspension or
Commonly used additives required to form the respective oral preparations should be used.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the plaque is selected from bacterial plaque, arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, and pleural plaque, and the calculus is selected from dental calculus, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus.
In a presently most preferred embodiment the seaweed is Ascophyllum nodosum.
For example, the Ascophyllum
nodosum nodosum seaweed may have an analyzed chemical
5-15 % of Fucoidin,
2.5- 3.5% of S, 2-3 % of K, 3-4 % of C1,
Another aspect of the invention is directed to a unit dose of an oral preparation comprising as an active ingredient a mammalian plaque and/or calculus reducing amount of an Assophyllum sp. seaweed or an extract thereof.
In a preferred embodiment the
mammalian plaque and/or calculus reducing amount of an
Still another aspect of the
invention is directed to a prophylactic
The invention will now be further illustrated with reference to the description of drawings and experiments, but the scope of protection is not intended to be limited to the disclosed embodiments of the invention.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 3 is a diagram that
shows the quality of dental calculus in 30 persons after 2 months consumption
In Fig. 1 and 2, the
Experiments In addition to the described initial empirical studies a number of experiments were conducted as will be disclosed in the following.
The oral preparation used in
the experiments is a unite dose in the form of a coated tablet, called
One dentist recorded the
extension of supragingival calculus and plaque on
Statistical method: The differences between values recorded at baseline and two months later were statistically evaluated by Analysis of variance.
Results: The Tables
As shown in Figure 3 the
effect of the
At the two month examination
some of the patients who still had calculus accepted to increase from two to
Thus it seems that the effect is dose dependent.
In other cases the calculus
was removed by the dentist two months after baseline and the patients continued
to eat the
Consumption during two months
reduced plaque by 71-87 per cent. According to Table 2 the difference before
and after consumption was highly significant on all three examined teeth.
Most likely that effect can
be achieved already after a few days consumption of the
Two of the patients suffered from renal calculus as well. Surprisingly they noticed that they got a precipitation in their urine, indicating degradation of their renal calculus.
These findings indicate that
The recorded reduction of existing calculus is consistent with the observed plaque reduction and the observation that new calculus formation was unusual during the consumption period.
Daily consumption of this
seaweed may reduce the extension of plaque and of calculus in adults having
calculus, but also prevent formation of new plaque and calculus.
Tooth No. 26 PLI SD At baseline 0. 85 0.456 After two
months 0. 11 0.362 Diff 87 % P<0. 0001 Tooth No. 31
At baseline 0.70 0.535 After two months 0.10