Kelp extract may reduce dental plaque

May 2014  by Gabriel MacSharry Kelp extract may reduce dental plaque
Oral preparation containing certain seaweed herbal medicines are being investigated for their ability to reduce plaque and calculus in the body.

Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum)

Oral preparation containing certain seaweed herbal medicines are being investigated for their ability to reduce plaque and calculus in the body. The present investigation relates to an oral preparation for reduction of mammalian plaque and/or calculus. More precisely, the invention relates to the use of an Ascoplz l sp. seaweed or an extract thereof for the manufacture of an oral preparation for reduction of mammalian plaque and/or calculus, to a unite dose of an oral preparation comprising as an active ingredient a an Ascop/ll sp. seaweea'or an extract thereof, and to a prophylactic and/or therapeutic method of treating plaque and/or calculus in a mammalian individual.

Background

Dental calculus is an inconvenience that affects mammals, such as humans, cats and dogs. Dental calculus is considered by professionals to be calcified bacterial deposits. It is considered to appear where removal of the deposits has failed. It is very strongly attached to the dental surface and it is impossible for an ordinary person to remove it by himself. The only method hitherto know for removing dental calculus is that the dentist or the dental hygienist mechanically brakes it loose with an instrument or vibrates it loose with a supersonic apparatus. Dental calculus gives no pain but the removal thereof often does. It makes oral hygiene more difficult and should be removed.

Plaque is a necessity for formation of dental calculus and for development of caries. However, all plaques do not develop calculus, probably due to some protective mechanism in saliva and/or the periodontal exudate. There is not sufficient knowledge of the character of such a protective mechanism. The composition of the diet may be of importance.

Everyone does not get dental calculus. Despite a miserable oral hygiene some persons may live their whole life without getting any. The reason for this is unknown but it can be assumed that the chemical composition of the saliva plays an important role.

Therefore, it should be possible to combat the formation of dental calculus with chemical means. Many attempts have been made to administer chemical preparations that were expected to locally influence the process. Hitherto none has been successful.

Current research

The present research provides a means to reduce, or even eliminate, not only bacterial plaque and dental caries but also arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, pleural plaque, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus.

The investigation is on a preparation of Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum) and is based on empirical studies on dog and human which have established that dental calculus is released after a few weeks consumption of coated tablets containing meal of Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum). They were swallowed without letting them first exert any local effect in the mouth. Therefore it can be concluded that the effect on the dental calculus depends on influence mediated by the blood, saliva and/or the fluid coming from gum pockets. Evidently chemical components from the tablet, via some of the fluids, broke the chemical bonds that keep the dental calculus attached to the dental surface. However, the mechanism of action is not known.

Both in the initial empirical studies and in the experiments below the seaweed used is an Ascophylium sp., namely A. nodosum The analyzed composition of Ascophyllum nodosum is given in Table 1. This seaweed has been commercially available all over Europe for more than 30 years. It contains a large number of nutrients and may be regarded as a dietary supplement.

Thus, one aspect of the investigation is directed to the use of an AscopllS Rl sp. seaweed or an extract thereof for the manufacture of an oral preparation for reduction of mammalian plaque and/or calculus.

In this specification and claims, it is intended that the extract of Ascoplllyllum sp. seaweed should be interpreted as any synthetic or isolated part of the seaweed that is capable of reducing mammalian plaque and/or calculus.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the mammal is selected from a human, a cat and a dog.

In another embodiment the oral preparation is selected from a powder, suspension, tablet, coated tablet and capsule. Since the taste of the seaweed is not considered to be attractive, the taste is preferably masked by providing the seaweed in a coated tablet or capsule, or by adding a spice or aroma to the powder, suspension or uncoated tablet.

Commonly used additives required to form the respective oral preparations should be used.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the plaque is selected from bacterial plaque, arteriosclerotic plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, and pleural plaque, and the calculus is selected from dental calculus, renal calculus, biliary calculus, and prostatic calculus.

In a presently most preferred embodiment the seaweed is Ascophyllum nodosum.

For example, the Ascophyllum nodosum nodosum seaweed may have an analyzed chemical composition of : 20-26 ° o of sulphated uronic acids in esterified form, 5-8 I"o of Mannitol, 2-5 % of Laminaran.

5-15 % of Fucoidin, 2.5- 3.5% of S, 2-3 % of K, 3-4 % of C1, 3-4 °/0 of Na, 0. 5-1 °O of Mg, 1-3 °o of Ca, 0. 1-0. 15% of P, and 40-100 mg/kg of Br, 1-10 mg of Co, 1-10 mgCu, 150- 1000 mg ofFe, 10-50 mg ofMn, 700-1200 mg of 1, 20-200 mg ofZn, 0.3-1 mg of, 2-5 mg of Ni, 15-50 mg of Ba, 1.5-3 mg of V and 500-2000 mg/kg of Ascorbic acid, 150-300 mg/kg of Tocopherols, 30-60 mg/kg of Carotenes, 10-30 mg/kg ofNiacin, O. I- 0. 4 mg/kg of Biotin, 0.2-1 mg/kg of Folic acid, 5-10 mg/kg of Riboflavine, 1-5 mg/kg of Thiamine, 0.004 mg/kg of Vitamin B12, and 10 mg/kg of Vitamin K.

Another aspect of the invention is directed to a unit dose of an oral preparation comprising as an active ingredient a mammalian plaque and/or calculus reducing amount of an Assophyllum sp. seaweed or an extract thereof.

In a preferred embodiment the mammalian plaque and/or calculus reducing amount of an Ascoplyllus sp. seaweed is 250 mg-1 g of seaweed per unit dose. The Ascophyllus sp. seaweed is preferably Ascophyllum nodosum.

Still another aspect of the invention is directed to a prophylactic and/or therapeutic method of treating plaque and/or calculus in a mammalian individual in need thereof, comprising administration of a unite dose of an oral preparation according to the invention to said individual.

The invention will now be further illustrated with reference to the description of drawings and experiments, but the scope of protection is not intended to be limited to the disclosed embodiments of the invention.

Description of the drawings Fig. 1 is a diagram that shows the extension of calculus on 3 teeth in 30 persons after 2 months consumption of CalcOFF, a tablet according to the invention.

Fig. 2 is a diagram that shows the extension of plaque on 3 teeth in 30 persons after 2 months consumption of CalcOFF.

Fig. 3 is a diagram that shows the quality of dental calculus in 30 persons after 2 months consumption of CalcOFF.

In Fig. 1 and 2, the OHI-s is an oral hygiene index that describes the extension of plaque or calculus on a tooth surface. It is subdivided into four classes: 0 indicating no plaque, I indicating plaque on < 1l3 of the surface, 2 indicating plaque on < 2/3 and 3 indicating plaque on >'13 of the tooth surface.

Experiments In addition to the described initial empirical studies a number of experiments were conducted as will be disclosed in the following.

The oral preparation used in the experiments is a unite dose in the form of a coated tablet, called CalcOFF, and it consists of Dry powder of Ascophyllum nodosum 250 mg Dicalcium phosphate 130 mg Microcrystalline cellulose 116.8 mg Magnesium stearate 3.2 mg The experiments were conducted with 30 adult patients who used to be calculus formers and who had oral calculus present at baseline. They got free samples of the CalcOFF and agreed to consume two tablets a day for two months.

One dentist recorded the extension of supragingival calculus and plaque on teeth 26, 31 and 11 (Greene and Wermillion index, i. e. oral hygiene index = OHI-s) at baseline and after two months. The OHI-s results were recorded as plaque index (PLA) and calculus index (CAI), respectively.

Statistical method: The differences between values recorded at baseline and two months later were statistically evaluated by Analysis of variance.

Results: The Tables 2 and 3, and the Figures 1 and 2, demonstrate that the extension of both plaque and calculus was strongly and significantly reduced on all examined teeth. It is emphasized that the data accounted for in Table 3 to some extent are based on the dentists subjective judgement.

As shown in Figure 3 the effect of the CalcOFF tablet on calculus differed between individuals. In 16 persons the calculus disappeared or the extension of it was reduced. In 12 persons, only little reduction was recorded but the calculus was extremely soft and easy to remove, even by the patient. No effect was recorded in two cases. The differing effect is most likely due to different levels of mineralization.

At the two month examination some of the patients who still had calculus accepted to increase from two to four CalcOFF tablets a day for another eight weeks. This experiment is still running but it is evident that they are loosing calculus more rapidly now.

Thus it seems that the effect is dose dependent.

In other cases the calculus was removed by the dentist two months after baseline and the patients continued to eat the CalcOFF tablet. Formation of new calculus was either nil or considerably slower compared to previous years.

The CalcOFF tablet had a pronounced effect on plaque formation (Figure 2).

Consumption during two months reduced plaque by 71-87 per cent. According to Table 2 the difference before and after consumption was highly significant on all three examined teeth.

Most likely that effect can be achieved already after a few days consumption of the CalcOFF tablet.

Two of the patients suffered from renal calculus as well. Surprisingly they noticed that they got a precipitation in their urine, indicating degradation of their renal calculus.

These findings indicate that CalcOFF is efficient against other calculus formations in addition to dental calculus and likely efficient against other plaque formations in addition to dental plaque.

The recorded reduction of existing calculus is consistent with the observed plaque reduction and the observation that new calculus formation was unusual during the consumption period.

Daily consumption of this seaweed may reduce the extension of plaque and of calculus in adults having calculus, but also prevent formation of new plaque and calculus. Table 1. The analyzed composition of Ascophyllum nodosum Water 12-15 % Ash 17 -20 % Alginic acid20-26% Mannitol 5-8 % Laminaran 2 - 5 % <BR> Fibres &lt;8 %<BR> Protein5-10 % Ether extract 2-4 % Fucoidin10% S 2. 5-3.5% K 2-3 % Cl 3.1- 4.4 % Na 3-4 % Mg 0.5- 0.9 % Ca 1 - 3 % P 0.1- 0.15% Br 40 - 100 mg/kg Co 1 - 10 mg/kg Cu I-10 mg/kg Fe 150-1000 mg/kg Mn 10-50 mg/kg I 700 -1200 mg/kg Zn 20-200 mg/kg Mo 0.3- 1 mg/kg Ni 2 - 5 mg/kg Ba 15 - 50 mg/kg V 1. 5-3 mg/kg Ascorbic acid 500 - 2000 mg/kg Tocopheroles 150 - 300 mg/kg Carotene 30 - 60 mg/kg Niacin 10-30 mg/kg Biotin 0.1-0.4 mg/kg Folic acid 0. 2 - 1 mg/kg Riboflavine 5 - 10 mg/kg Thiamine I-5 mg/kg Vit. B 12 0. 004 mg/kg Vit. K 10 mg/kg Table 2. Extension of dental calculus on teeth No. 26,31 and 11 in 30 persons before and after two months consumption of CalcOFF, Tooth No. 26 CAI SD At baseline 0.96 0.527 After two months 0.57 0.503 Diff 41% P< 0.0021 Tooth No. 31 At baseline 1.13 0. 571 After two months 0.76 0.504 Diff30% P<0. 011 Tooth No. 11 At baseline 0.41 0.568 After two months 0.14 0.350 Diff68 % P< 0.009 Table 3. Extension of plaque on teeth No. 26, 31 and 11 in 30 persons before and after two months consumption of CalcOFF.

Tooth No. 26 PLI SD At baseline 0. 85 0.456 After two months 0. 11 0.362 Diff 87 % P<0. 0001 Tooth No. 31 At baseline 0.70 0.535 After two months 0.10 0. 305 Diff 86% P< 0.0001 Tooth No 11 At baseline 0.48 0. 580 After two months 0. 15 0. 362 Diff 71 P< 0. 001

 

Kelp extract may reduce dental plaque
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